Fire effect on bamboo-dominated forests in Southwestern Amazon: impacts on tree diversity and forest structure




aboveground biomass; burned forests; tree species; tropical forests.


Severe droughts increase the forest flammability, especially if fires are recurrent. Considering that fires tend to alter the forest structure and reduce biological diversity, we analyzed the fire effect on the tree plant community and forest structure over a 10-year post-fire period. The study was carried out in two tropical forest fragments located in the eastern Acre State in southwestern Brazilian Amazon. In each fragment, we established three plots of 250 × 10 m2 in an unburned forest and three in a burned forest. In these plots, we collected all tree individuals with DBH≥10 following the RAINFOR protocol, with censuses made in 2011, 2014, 2016, 2017, 2019, 2020 and 2021. The fire significantly reduced the abundance, basal area, and aboveground biomass of tree species, and altered the species composition along the post-fire temporal gradient. The absence of differences in the species richness and species diversity between unburned and burned forests is probably related to the life cycle of bamboo. The results suggest that, 10 years after the fire, the structure and phytosociology of the forest have not yet fully recovered.


Download data is not yet available.


Alencar, A.; Brando, P.M.; Asner. G.P.; Putz, F.E., 2015. Landscape fragmentation, severe drought, and the new Amazon forest fire regime. Ecological Application (Online), v. 25, (1), 1493-1505.

Anderson, M.J., 2001. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology (Online), v. 26, (1), 32-46.

Andrade, D.F.C.; Gama, J.R.V.; Ruschel, A.R.; Melo, L.O.; Avila, A.L.; Carvalho, J.O.P., 2019. Post-fire recovery of a dense ombrophylous forest in Amazon. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. (Online), v. 92, (1), 1-12.

Andrade, D.F.C.; Ruschel, A.R.; Schwartz, G.; De Carvalho, J.O.P.; Humphries, S.; Gama, J.R.V., 2020. Forest resilience to fire in eastern Amazon depends on the intensity of pre-fire disturbance. Forest Ecology and Management (Online), v. 472, (1), 1-10.

Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Anderson, L.O.; Fonseca, M.G.; Rosan, T.M.; Vedovato, L.B.; Wagner, F.H.; Silva, C.V.J.; Arai, E.; Barlow, J.; Berenguer, E.; Deeter, M.N.; Domingues, L.G.; Gatti, L.; Gloor, M.; Malhi, Y.; Marengo, J.A.; Miller, J.B.; Phillips, O.L.; Saatchi, S., 2018. 21st Century drought-related fires counteract the decline of Amazon deforestation carbon emissions. Nature Communications (Online), v. 9, (536), 1-11.

Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Malhi, Y.; Barbier, N.; Lima, A.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Anderson, O.L; Saatchi, S., 2008. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. (Online), v. 363, (1), 1779-1785.

Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Malhi, Y.; Cuesta-Roman, R.M.; Saatchi, S.; Anderson, O.L.; Shimabukuro, Y., 2007. Spatial patterns and fire response of recent Amazonian droughts. Geophysical Research Letters (Online), v. 34, (7), 1-5.

Araujo, H.J.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Vasconcelos, S.S; Correia, M.F., 2013. Danos provocados pelo fogo sobre a vegetação natural em uma floresta primária no estado do acre, Amazônia brasileira. Ciência Florestal (Online), v. 23, (2), 297-308.

Balch, J.K.; Bradley, B.A.; D’Antonio, C.M.; Gomez-Dans, J., 2013. Introduced annual grass increases regional fire activity across the arid western USA (1980–2009). Global Change Biology (Online), v. 19, (1), 173-183.

Barlow, J.; Berenguer, E.; Carmenta, R.; França, F., 2020. Clarifying Amazonia's burning crisis. Global Ghange Biology (Online), v. 26, (2), 319-321.

Barlow, J.; Parry, L.; Gardner, T.A.; Ferreira, J.; Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Carmenta, R.; Berenguer, E.; Vieira, I.C.G.; Cochrane, M.A., 2012. The critical importance of considering fire in REDD+ programs. Biological Conservation (Online), v. 154, (1), 1-8.

Barlow, J.; Peres, C.A., 2008. Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian Forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Online), v. 363, (1498), 1787-1794.

Barlow, J.; Peres, C.A.; Lagan, B.O.; Haugaasen, T., 2002. Large tree mortality and the decline of forest biomass following Amazonian wildfires. Ecology Letters (Online), v. 6 (1), 6-8. https://doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00394.x

Bates, D.; Maechler, M.; Bolker, B.; Walker, S.; Christensen, R. H. B.; Singmann, H.; Dai, B.; Grothendieck, G.; Green, P., 2017. Package lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using 'Eigen' and S4 (Accessed March 15, 2022) at:

Calzavara, A.K.; Bianchini, E.; Pimenta, J.A.; Oliveira, H.C.; Stolf-Moreira, R., 2019. Photosynthetic light-response curves of light-demanding and shade-tolerant seedlings of neotropical tree species. Photosynthetica (Online), v. 57, (2), 470-474.

Carvalho, S.; Oliveira, A.; Pedersen, J.S.; Manhice, H.; Lisboa, F.; Norguet, J.; de Wit, F.; Santos, F.D., 2020. A changing Amazon rainforest: Historical trends and future projections under post-Paris climate scenarios. Global and Planetary Change (Online), v. 195, (1), 2-37.

Castro, W.; Salimon, C.I.; Herison Medeiros, H.; Silva, I.B.; Silveira, M., 2013. Bamboo abundance, edge effects, and tree mortality in a forest fragment in Southwestern. Scientia Forestalis, v. 41, (98), 159-164.

Cochrane, M.A., 2003. Fire science for rainforests. Nature (Online), v. 421, (1), 913-919.

Clement, C.R.; Denevan, W.M.; Heckenberger, M.J.; Junqueira, A.B.; Neves, E.G.; Teixeira, W.G.; Woods, W.I., 2015. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (Online), v. 282, (1812), 1-9.

Crawley, M. J., 2012. The R book. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1050 p.

Dalagnol, R.; Wagner, F.M.H.; Galvão, L.S; Nelson, B.W.; Aragão, L.E.O.C., 2018. Cycle of bamboo in the southwestern Amazon and its relation to fire events. Biogeosciences (Online), v. 15, (20), 6087-6104.

Debiasi, T.V.; Calzavara A.K.; Sodek, L.; Oliveira, H.C., 2021. Nitrogen use plasticity in response to light intensity in neotropical tree species of distinct functional groups. Physiologia Plantarum (Online), v. 172, (4), 2226-2237.

Duarte, F.A., 2006. Aspectos da climatologia do Acre, Brasil, com base no intervalo 1971-2000. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia (Online), v. 21, (3), 308-317.

Dutra, D.J.; Anderson, L.O.; Fearnside, P.M.; Graça, P.M.L.D.A.; Yanai, A.M.; Dalagnol, R.; Burton, C.; Jones, C.; Betts, R.; Aragão, L.E.O.C., 2023. Fire dynamics in an emerging deforestation frontier in Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. Fire (Online), v. 6 (2), 1-24.

Ferreira, I.J.M.; Campanharo, W.A.; Barbosa, M.L F.; Silva, S.S.; Selaya, G.; Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Anderson, L.O., 2023. Assessment of fire hazard in Southwestern Amazon. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change (Online), v. 6 (1), 1-17.

Fischer, R., 2021. The long-term consequences of forest fires on the carbon fluxes of a tropical forest in Africa. Applied Sciences (Online), v. 11, (10), 1-17.

Florian, H., 2017. Package DHARMa: residual diagnostics for hierarchical (multi-level/mixed) regression models (Accessed March 15, 2022) at:

Fonseca-Morello, T.; Ramos, R.; Steil, L.; Parry, L.; Barlow, J.; Markusson, N.; Ferreira, A., 2017. Queimadas e incêndios florestais na Amazônia. Ambiente & Sociedade (Online), v. 20, (4), 1-20.

Haugaasen, T.; Barlow, J.; Peres, C.A., 2003. Surface wildfires in central Amazonia: short-term impact on forest structure and carbon loss. Forest Ecology and Management (Online), v. 179, (1-3), 321-333.

Horta, J.; Bello, F.; Diniz-Filho, J.A.; Lewinsohn, T.M.; Lobo, J.M.; Ladle, R.J., 2015. Seven Shortfalls that Beset Large-Scale Knowledge of Biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics (Online), v. 46, (1), 523-549.

Juárez-Orozco, S.M.; Siebe, C.; Fernandez, F.D., 2017. Causes and effects of forest fires in tropical rainforests. Tropical Conservation Science (Online), v. 10, (104), 1-14.

Ludwig, J.A.; Reynolds, J.F., 1988. Statistical ecology: a primer on methods and computing. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 337 p.

Magalhães, P.M.; Lima, C.G.P.; Santos, S.R.; Maia, R.R.; Schmidt, M.; Barbosa, P.A.C.; Fonseca, A.J.O., 2019. Holoceno inferior e a antropogênese amazônica na longa história indígena da Amazônia oriental (Carajás, Pará, Brasil). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas (Online), v. 14, (2), 291-325.

Marengo, A.; Nobre, C.A.; Tomasella, J.; Cardoso, M.F.; Oyama, M.D., 2008. Hydro-climatic and ecological behaviour of the drought of Amazonia in 2005. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. (Online), v. 21, (1), 495-516.

Martins, F.R., 1993. Estrutura de uma floresta mesófila. 2. ed. Editora da Unicamp, Campinas, 246 p.

Mataveli, G.; Pereira, G.; Sanchez, A.; de Oliveira, G.; Jones, M.W.; Freitas, S.R.; Aragão, L.E.O.C., 2023. Updated land use and land cover information improves biomass burning emission estimates. Fire (Online), v. 6, (426), 1-15.

McMichael, C.H.; Bush, M.B.; Silman, M.R.; Piperno, D.R.; Raczka, M.; Lobato, L.C.; Zimmerman, M.; Hagen, S.; Palace, M., 2012. Historical fire and bamboo dynamics in western Amazonia. Journal of Biogeography (Online), v. 40, (2), 299-309.

Medeiros, H.; Castro, W.; Salimon, C.I.; Silva, I.B.; Silveira, M., 2013. Tree mortality, recruitment and growth in a bamboo dominated forest fragment in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. Biota Neotropica (Online), v. 13, (2), 30-34.

Minchin, P.R., 1987. An evaluation of the relative robustness of techniques for ecological ordination. Vegetation (Online), v. 69, (1), 89-107.

Morton, D.C.; Page, L.E.; Defries, R.; Collatz, G.J.; Hurtt, G.C., 2013. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia. Philosophical Transsactions of the Royal Society B. (Online), v. 368, (1619), 1-8.

Nascimento, H.E.M.; Dias, A.S.; Tabanez, A.A.J; Viana, V.M., 1999. Estrutura e dinâmica de populações arbóreas de um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual na região de piracicaba, sp. Revista Brasileira de Biologia (Online), v. 59, (2), 329-342.

Nascimento, M.E.H.; Laurance, F.W., 2002. Total aboveground biomass in central Amazonian rainforests: a landscape-scale study. Ecology and Management (Online), v. 168, (1-3), 311-321.

Nóbrega, C.C.; Brando, P.M.; Silvério, DV.; Maracahipes, L.; de Marco Jr, P., 2019. Effects of experimental fires on the phylogenetic and functional diversity of woody species in a neotropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management (Online), v. 450, (1), 1-7.

Numata. I.; Silva, S.S.; Cochrane, M.A.; D’Oliveira, M.V., 2017. Fire and edge effects in a fragmented tropical forest landscape in the southwestern Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management (Online), v. 401, (1), 135-146.

Oksanen, J.; Simpson, G.L.; Blanchet, F.G.; Guillaume Blanchet, F.G.; Kindt, R.; Legendre, P.; Minchin, P.R.; O'Hara, R.B.; Solymos, P.; Stevens, M.H.H.; Szoecs, E.; Wagner, H.; Barbour, M.; Bedward, M.; Bolker, B.; Borcard, D.; Carvalho, G.; Chirico, M.; De Caceres, M.; Durand, S.; Evangelista, H.B.A.; FitzJohn, R.; Friendly, M.; Furneaux, B.; Hannigan, G.; Hill, M.O.; Lahti, L.; McGlinn, D.; Ouellette, M.-H.; Cunha, E.R.; Smith, T.; Stier, A.; Ter Braak, C.J.F.; Weedon, J., 2017. Package vegan: community ecology package (Accessed March 15, 2022) at:

Oliveira de Morais, T.M.; Berenguer, E.; Barlow, J.; França, F.; Lennox, G. D.; Malhi, Y.; Rossi, C.L.; Seixas, M.M.M.; Ferreira, J., 2021. Leaf-litter production in human-modified Amazonian forests following the El Niño-mediated drought and fires of 2015–2016. Forest Ecology and Management (Online), v. 496, (1), 1-8.

Phillips, O.L.; Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Lewis, S.L.; Fisher, J.B.; Lloyd, J.; López-González, G.; Malhi, Y.; Monteagudo, A.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C.A.; Van der Heijden, G.; Almeida, S.; Amaral, I.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, G.; Baker, T.R.; Bánki, O.; Blanc, L.; Bonal, D.; Brando, P.; Chave, J.; Alves de Oliveira, Á.C.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Czimczik, C.I.; Feldpausch, T.R.; Freitas, M.A.; Gloor, E.; Higuchi, N.; Jiménez, E.; Lloyd, G.; Meir, P.; Mendoza, C.; Morel, A.; Neill, D.A.; Nepstad, D.; Patiño, S.; Peñuela, M.C.; Prieto, A.; Ramírez, F.; Schwarz, M.; Silva, J.; Silveira, M.; Sota Thomas, A.; Ter Steege, H.; Stropp, J.; Vásquez, R.; Zelazowski, P.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Andelman, S.; Andrade, A.; Chao, K.-J.; Erwin, T.; Di Fiore, A.; Honorio C., E.; Keeling, H.; Killeen, T.J.; Laurance, W.F.; Peña Cruz, A.; Pitman, N.C.A.; Núñez Vargas, P.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Rudas, A.; Salamão, R.; Silva, N.; Terborgh, J.; Torres-Lezama, A., 2009. Drought sensitivity of the amazon rainforest. Science (Online), v. 323, (5919), 1344-1347. https://doi/10.1126/science.1164033

Pivello, R.V., 2011. The use of fire in the cerrado and amazonian rainforests of Brazil: past and presente. Fire Ecology (Online), v. 7, (1), 24-39.

Pontes-Lopes, A.; Dalagnol, R.; Dutra, A.C.; Silva, C.V.J.; Graça, P.M.L.A.; Aragão, L.E.O.C., 2022. Quantifying post-fire changes in the aboveground biomass of an amazonian forest based on field and remote sensing data. Remote Sensing (Online), v. 14, (7), 1-20.

Prestes, N.C.C.S.; Massi, K.G.; Silva, E.A.; Nogueira, D.S.; Oliveira, E.A.; Freitas, G.R.; Marimom, B.S.; Marimom-Junior, B.H.; Keller, M.; Feldpausch, T.R., 2020. Fire effects on understory forest regeneration in Southern Amazonia. Frontiers in Forests and Global (Online), v. 3, (1), 1-15.

R Development Core Team, 2016. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna (Accessed March 15, 2022) at:

RAINFOR, 2016 (Accessed Outuber 14, 2021) at:

Reis, C.R.; Jackson, T.D.; Gorgens, E.B.; Dalagnol, R.; Junker, T.; Nunes, M.H.; Ometto, J.P.; Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Rodriguez, L.C.E.; Coomes, D.A., 2022. Forest disturbance and growth processes are reflected in the geographical distribution of large canopy gaps across the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Ecology (Online), v. 110, (12), 1-13.

Resende, A.F.; Nelson, B.W.; Flores, B.M.; Almeida, D.R., 2014. File Damage in Seasonally Flooded and Upland Forests of the Central Amazon. Biotropica (Online), v. 46, (6), 643-646.

Ritter, S.M.; Hoffman, C.M.; Battaglia, M.A.; Stevens-Rumann, C.S.; Mell, W.E., 2020. Fine-scale fire patterns mediate forest structure in frequent-fire ecosystems. Ecosphere (Online), v. 11, (7), 1-17.

Sato, L.Y.; Gomes, V.C.F.; Shimabukuro, Y.E.; Keller, M.; Arai, E.; Dos-Santos, M.N.; Brown, I.F.; Aragão, L.E.O.C., 2016. Post-Fire Changes in Forest Biomass Retrieved by Airborne LIDAR in Amazonia. Remote Sensing (Online), v. 8, (839), 1-15.

Silva, C.V.J.; Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Barlow, J.; Espirito-Santo, F.; Young, P.J.; Anderson, L.O.; Berenguer, E.; Brasil, I.; Brown, I.F.; Castro, B.; Farias, R.; Ferreira, J.; França, F.; Graça, P.M.L.A.; Kirsten, L.; Lopes, A.P.; Salimon, C.; Scaranello, M.A.; Seixas, M.; Souza, F.C.; Xaud, H.A.M., 2018. Drought-induced Amazonian wildfires instigate a decadal-scale disruption of forest carbon dynamics. Philosophical transactions of the royal society b-biological sciences (Online), v. 373, (1760), 1-5.

Silva, I.D.B.; Valle, M.E.; Barros, L.C.; Meyer, J.F.C.A., 2020. A wildfire warning system applied to the state of Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. Applied Soft Computing (Online), v. 89, (1), 1-15.

Silva, S.S.; Numata, I.; Fearnside, P.M.; Graça, P.M.L.A.; Ferreira, E.L.L.; Santos, E.A.; Lima, P.R.F.; Dias, M.S.S.; Lima, R.C.; Melo, A.W.F., 2021. Impact of fires on an open bamboo forest in years of extreme drought in southwestern Amazonia. Regional Environmental Change (Online), v. 20, (1), 1-13.

Silva-Junior, C.H.L.; Buna, A.T.M.; Bezerra, D.S.; Costa, O.S. Jr.; Santos, A.L.; Basson, L.O.D.; Santos, A.L.S.; Alvarado, S.T.; Almeida, C.T.; Freire, A.T.G.; Rousseau, G.X.; Celentano, D.; Silva, F.B.; Pinheiro, M.S.S.; Amaral, S.; Kampel, M.; Vedovato, L.B.; Anderson, L.O.; Aragão, L.E.O.C., 2022. Forest Fragmentation and fires in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon–Maranhão State, Brazil. Fire (Online), v. 5, (3), 1-17.

Silveira, M.A., 2005. floresta aberta com bambu no sudoeste da Amazônia: padrões e processos em múltiplas escalas. ED. UFAC, Rio Branco, 127 p.

Smith, M.; Nelson, B.W., 2011. Fire favours expansion of bamboo-dominated forests in the south-west Amazon. Journal of Tropical Ecology (Online), v. 27, (1), 59-64.

Tyukavina, A.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, C. M.; Pickens, H. A.; Stehman, V. S.; Turubanova, S.; Parker, D.; Zalles, V.; Lima, A., Kommareddy, I.; Song, X.; Wang, L.; Harris, N., 2022. Global Trends of Forest Loss Due to Fire From 2001 to 2019. Frontiers in Remote Sensing (Online), v. 3, (1), 1-20.

Vedovato, L.B.; Carvalho, L.C.S.; Aragão, L.E.O.C.; Bird, M.I.; Phillips, O.L.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Barlow, J.; Bartholomew, D.; Berenguer, E.; Castro, W.; Ferreira, J.; França, F.M.; Malhi, Y.; Marimon, B.S.; Marimon-Junior, B.H.; Monteagudo, A.; Oliveira, E.A.; Pereira, L.D.O.; Pontes-Lopes, A.; Quesada, C.A.; Silva, C.V.J.; Silva Espejo, J.E.; Silveira, M.; Feldpausch, T.R., 2023. Ancient fires enhance Amazon forest drought resistance. Forests and Global Change (Online), v. 6, (1), 1-12.

Xaud, H.A.M.; Martins, F.S.R.V.; Santos, J.R., 2013. Tropical forest degradation by mega-fires in the northern Brazilian Amazon, Forest Ecology and Management. (Online), v. 294, (1), 97-106.

Zalamea, P.; Sarmiento, C.; Stevenson, P.R.; Rodríguez, M.; Nicoloni, E.; Heur, P., 2013. Effect of rainfall seasonality on the growth of Cecropia sciadophylla: intraannual variation in leaf production and node length. Journal of Tropical Ecology (Online), v. 29, (4), 361-365.

Ziccardi, L.G.; de Alencastro Graça, P.M.L.; Figueiredo, E.O.; Fearnside, P.M., 2019. Decline of large-diameter trees in a bamboo-dominated forest following anthropogenic disturbances in southwestern Amazonia. Annals of Forest Science (Online), v. 76, (110), 1-6.




How to Cite

Silva, I. B. da, Miranda, P. N., Anderson, L. O., Jesus, C. V. S. de, Aragão, L. E. O. C. de, Campos, C. A., Salimon, C. I., Rodriguez, A. F. R., & Silveira, M. (2024). Fire effect on bamboo-dominated forests in Southwestern Amazon: impacts on tree diversity and forest structure. Revista Brasileira De Ciências Ambientais (RBCIAMB), 59, e1755.