Temporal dynamics and land use in the marine protected area of Baía do Iguape in Northeastern Brazil





estuaries; anthropic tensors; remote sensing.


This study investigated land-use dynamics in a protected area and how dams and hydroelectric as anthropic tensors of spatial changes in mangrove areas, in addition to evaluating the spectral response for vegetative vigor, efficiently use radiation in the photosynthetic process and the flux of atmospheric carbon by vegetation indices. The temporal mapping and the transition of land use were evaluated between 1986 and 2020, using images from the Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 satellites using a visual interpretation technique. Spectral analysis of mangroves was performed using vegetation indices. The results showed that the establishment of the protected area decreased the rate of conversion from natural to anthropic areas, allowing natural areas to increase by 332 ha, driven by the increase in mangroves by 240 ha. Mangroves, dense ombrophilous forests, and grasslands are the classes that most transit between categories temporally. The combination of the dam and power generation reduced the flow to the estuary, causing an increase in saline intrusion, which contributed to the increase in the mangrove area in areas distant from anthropic activities, suggesting the maintenance of the protected area and the greater flow of atmospheric carbon.


Download data is not yet available.


Adame, M.F.; Brown, C.J.; Bejarano, M.; Herrera‐Silveira, J.A.; Ezcurra, P.; Kauffman, J.B.; Birdsey, R., 2018. The undervalued contribution of mangrove protection in Mexico to carbon emission targets. Conservation Letters, v. 11, (4), e12445. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12445.

Brasil, 1988. Lei nº 7.661 de maio de 1988. Brasília: Presidência da República.

Brasil, 1997. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Plano Nacional de Gerenciamento Costeiro II-PNGC. Brasil: Ministério do Meio Ambiente.

Brasil, 2000. Decreto de 11 de agosto de 2000. Brasília: Presidência da República.

Brasil, 2006. Lei nº 11.428, de 22 de dezembro de 2006. Diário Oficial da União.

Brasil, 2009. Lei nº 12.058, de 13 de outubro de 2009. Brasília: Presidência da República.

Brasil, 2012. Lei nº 12.651, de maio de 2012. Diário Oficial da União.

Bunting, P.; Rosenqvist, A.; Lucas, R.M.; Rebelo, L.M.; Hilarides, L.; Thomas, N.; Hardy, A.; Itoh, T.; Shimada, M.; Finlayson, C. M., 2018. The global mangrove watch—a new 2010 global baseline of mangrove extent. Remote Sensing, v. 10, (10), 1669.

Cañedo-Argüelles, M.; Kefford, B.J.; Piscart, C.; Prat, N.; Schäfer, R.B.; Schulz, C.J., 2013. Salinisation of rivers: an urgent ecological issue. Environmental Pollution, v. 173, 157-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.10.011.

Church, J.A.; White, N.J., 2006. A 20th century acceleration in global sea‐level rise. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 33, (1). https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024826.

Coelho, S.T.; Guardabassi, P.M.; Lora, B.A.; Monteiro, M.B.C.A.; Gorren, R., 2007. A sustentabilidade da expansão da cultura canavieira. Cadernos Técnicos da Associação Nacional de Transportes Públicos, v. 6.

Couto, G.A.D., 2014. Análise da influência do regime de vazão da UHE de pedra do cavalo no comportamento espacial e temporal da salinidade no trecho fluvioestuarino do baixo curso do Rio Paraguaçu à Baía do Iguape. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador.

Criscuolo, C.; Quartaroli, C.F.; Miranda, E.D.; Guimarães, M.; Hott, M., 2005. Dinâmica de uso e cobertura das terras na Região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Embrapa Territorial-Documentos.

Cunha, C.J.; Pinheiro, L.S.; Vilar, J.W.C., 2016. Desafios e perspectivas de sustentabilidade em agroecossistemas no estuário do Rio São Francisco. Revista Geonordeste, v. 27, (1), p. 169-186.

Duke, N.C.; Hutley, L.B.; Mackenzie, J.R.; Burrows, D., 2021. Processes and factors driving change in mangrove forests: An evaluation based on the mass dieback event in Australia’s Gulf of Carpentaria. In J.G. Canadell & R.B. Jackson (Eds.). Ecosystem Collapse and Climate Change (pp. 221-264). Springer, Cham.

Duke, N.C.; Nagelkerken, I.; Agardy, T.; Wells, S.; Van Lavieren, H., 2014. The importance of mangroves to people: A call to action. United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC).

Ellis, E.C.; Ramankutty, N., 2008. Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, v. 6, (8), 439-447. https://doi.org/10.1890/070062.

ESRI, 2019. ArcGIS 10.8. Environmental Systems Research Institute.

Feher, L.C.; Osland, M.J.; Griffith, K.T.; Grace, J.B.; Howard, R.J.; Stagg, C.L.; Enwright, N.M.; Krauss, K.W.; Gabler, C.A.; Day, R.H.; Rogers, K., 2017. Linear and nonlinear effects of temperature and precipitation on ecosystem properties in tidal saline wetlands. Ecosphere, v. 8, (10), e01956. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1956.

Fengler, F.; Silva, A.; Peche Filho, A.; Storino, M.; Ribeiro, A.; Medeiros, G., 2012. Análise temporal da cobertura do solo na zona de amortecimento de reserva biológica. Brazilian Journal of Environmental Sciences (Online), (25), 37-47.

Fernandes, D.A.J.; Vitorino, M.I.; Souza, P.J.; Jardim, M.A.G., 2018. Efeito da radiação solar sobre a regeneração natural de manguezal em Cuiarana, Salinópolis, Pará. Brazilian Journal of Environmental Sciences (Online), (49), 108-122. https://doi.org/10.5327/Z2176-947820180333.

Genz, F., 2006. Avaliação dos efeitos da barragem Pedra do Cavalo sobre a circulação estuarina do rio Paraguaçu e Baía de Iguape. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador.

Genz, F.; Lessa, G.C., 2015. Twenty-six years of uneven changes in low flows due to different uses and operation of a large dam in a semiarid river. Revista Brasileira de Recursos Hídricos, v. 20, (2), 523-532.

Genz, F.; Lessa, G.C.; Cirano, M., 2008. Vazão mínima para estuários: um estudo de caso no rio Paraguaçu (BA). Revista Brasileira de Recursos Hídricos, v. 13, (3), 73-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.21168/rbrh.v13n3.p73-82.

Havens, K., 2017. Climate change: effects on salinity in Florida's estuaries and responses of oysters, seagrass, and other animal and plant life. University of Florida.

Herbert, E.R.; Boon, P.; Burgin, A.J.; Neubauer, S.C.; Franklin, R.B.; Ardón, M.; Hopfensperger, K.N.; Lamers, L.P.P.; Gell, P., 2015. A global perspective on wetland salinization: ecological consequences of a growing threat to freshwater wetlands. Ecosphere, v. 6, (10), 1-43. https://doi.org/10.1890/ES14-00534.1.

Hörtenhuber, S.J.; Theurl, M.C.; Piringer, G.; Zollitsch, W.J., 2018. Consequences from land use and indirect/direct land use change for CO2 emissions related to agricultural commodities. In: L. Loures (Ed.), Land Use-Assessing the Past, Envisioning the Future (pp. 1-19). IntechOpen.

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), 2013. Manual técnico de uso da terra. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Rio de Janeiro.

Kathiresan, K., 2021. Mangroves: types and importance. In: Rastogi, R.P.; Phulwaria, M.; Gupta, D.K. (Eds.), Mangroves: ecology, biodiversity and management (pp. 1-31). Springer, Singapore.

Kodikara, K.A.S.; Jayatissa, L.P.; Huxham, M.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N., 2017. The effects of salinity on growth and survival of mangrove seedlings changes with age. Acta Botanica Brasilica, v. 32, 37-46. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062017abb0100.

Lacerda, L.D.D.; Menezes, M.O.T.D.; Molisani, M.M., 2007. Changes in mangrove extension at the Pacoti River estuary, CE, NE Brazil due to regional environmental changes between 1958 and 2004. Biota Neotropica, v. 7, (3), 67-72. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032007000300007.

Lam, V.W.; Allison, E.H.; Bell, J.D.; Blythe, J.; Cheung, W.W.; Frölicher, T.L.; Gasalta, M.A.; Sumaila, U.R., 2020. Climate change, tropical fisheries and prospects for sustainable development. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, v. 1, (9), 440-454. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-020-0071-9.

Leão, A.R.; Prates, A.P.L.; Fumi, M., 2018. Manguezal e as unidades de conservação. In: ICMBio. Atlas dos Manguezais do Brasil (pp. 57-73). Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Brasília.

Lessa, G.C.; Bittencourt, A.C.; Brichta, A.; Dominguez, J.M., 2000. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in Todos os Santos Bay (BA), Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, v. 72, (4), 573-590. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652000000400008.

Lima, R.A., 2005. Estrutura e regeneração de clareiras em Florestas Pluviais Tropicais. Brazilian Journal of Botany, v. 28, (4), 651-670. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84042005000400002.

Lucas, R.; Rebelo, L.M.; Fatoyinbo, L.; Rosenqvist, A.; Itoh, T.; Shimada, M.; Simard, M.; Souza-Filho, P.W.; Thomas, N.; Trettin, C.; Accad, A.; Carreiras, J.; Hilarides, L., 2014. Contribution of L-band SAR to systematic global mangrove monitoring. Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 65, (7), 589-603. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF13177.

Marins, R.V.; Lacerda, L.D.; Araujo, I.C.S.; Fonseca, L.V.; Silva, F.A., 2020. Phosphorus and suspended matter retention in mangroves affected by shrimp farm effluents in NE Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, v. 92, (3), e20200758.

Molin, P.G.; Gergel, S.E.; Soares-Filho, B.S.; Ferraz, S.F., 2017. Spatial determinants of Atlantic Forest loss and recovery in Brazil. Landscape Ecology, v. 32, (4), 857-870. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-017-0490-2.

Nardin, W.; Locatelli, S.; Pasquarella, V.; Rulli, M.C.; Woodcock, C.E.; Fagherazzi, S., 2016. Dynamics of a fringe mangrove forest detected by Landsat images in the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 41, (14), 2024-2037. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3968.

Nascimento, L.G., 2018. Os humanos e o Rio Paraguaçu: agenciamentos do rio por quilombolas da Baía do Iguape e pelo Estado. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador.

Noor, T.; Batool, N.; Mazhar, R.; Ilyas, N., 2015. Effects of siltation, temperature and salinity on mangrove plants. European Academic Research, v. 2, (11), 14172-14179.

Oliveira, I.S.; Conceição, P.R.M.; Ornellas, J.L.; Alexandrino, R.V.; Caiafa, A.N., 2020. A Mata da Salamina Putumuju e a busca pelo equilíbrio econômico ecológico. In A.N. Caiafa (Eds.). CO2 Manguezal: Estudos científicos (pp. 55-87). Fundação Vovó do Mangue e Petrobras, Bahia.

Ornellas, J.L.; Conceição, P.R.M.; Oliveira, I.S.; Alexandrino, R.V.; Oliveira, G.; Caiafa, A.N., 2020. A importância da conservação dos bosques de mangue para o armazenamento de carbono. In A.N. Caiafa (Ed.). CO2 Manguezal: Estudos científicos (pp. 90-122). Fundação Vovó do Mangue e Petrobras, Bahia.

Pachauri, R.K.; Meyer, L.A., 2014. Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (p. 151). IPCC.

Panizza, A.C.; Fonseca, F.P., 2011. Técnicas de interpretação visual de imagens. GEOUSP: Espaço e Tempo (Online), v. 15, (3), 30-43. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2179-0892.geousp.2011.74230.

Pelage, L.; Domalain, G.; Lira, A.S.; Travassos, P.; Fredou, T., 2019. Coastal land use in Northeast Brazil: mangrove coverage evolution over three decades. Tropical Conservation Science, v. 12, 1940082918822411. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1940082918822411.

Pinto, B.; Toppa, R., 2017. Land use in the environmental protection area (APA Tietê): environmental planning and land management. Brazilian Journal of Environmental Sciences (Online), (43), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.5327/Z2176-947820170147.

Primavera, J.H.; Friess, D.A.; Van Lavieren, H.; Lee, S.Y., 2019. The mangrove ecosystem. In World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (pp. 1-34). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805052-1.00001-2.

Prost, C., 2007. Impactos territoriais e ambientais Efeitos da barragem da Pedra do Cavalo sobre a pesca artesanal na baía do Iguape. In: Anais I Encuentro Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales y Represas, II Encontro Brasileiro de Ciências Sociais e Barragens, Salvador, 19 e 22 de novembro de 2007 (Accessed July 24, 2020) at:. http://www.neperge.ig.ufu.br/anais.html.

Rahman, A.F.; Gamon, J.A.; Fuentes, D.A.; Roberts, D.; Prentiss, D.; Qiu, H., 2000. Modeling CO2 flux of boreal forests using narrow-band indices from AVIRIS imagery. In: AVIRIS Workshop.

Romañach, S.S.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Koh, H.L.; Li, Y.; Teh, S.Y.; Barizan, R.S.R.; Zhai, L., 2018. Conservation and restoration of mangroves: Global status, perspectives, and prognosis. Ocean & Coastal Management, v. 154, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.01.009.

Rouse, J.W.; Haas, R.H.; Schell, J.A.; Deering, D.W., 1974. Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with ERTS. NASA Special Publication, v. 351, (1974), 309.

Rudorff, B.F.T.; Aguiar, D.A.; Silva, W.F.; Sugawara, L.M.; Adami, M.; Moreira, M.A., 2010. Studies on the rapid expansion of sugarcane for ethanol production in São Paulo State (Brazil) using Landsat data. Remote Sensing, v. 2, (4), 1057-1076. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs2041057.

Sari, S.P.; Rosalina, D., 2016. Mapping and monitoring of mangrove density changes on tin mining area. Procedia Environmental Sciences, v. 33, 436-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.03.094.

Satyanarayana, B.; Raman, A.V.; Dehairs, F.; Kalavati, C.; Chandramohan, P., 2002. Mangrove floristic and zonation patterns of Coringa, Kakinada Bay, East coast of India. Wetlands Ecology and Management, v. 10, (1), 25-37. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014345403103.

Schaadt, S.S.; Vibrans, A.C., 2015. O uso da terra no entorno de fragmentos florestais influencia a sua composição e estrutura. Floresta e Ambiente, v. 22, (4), 437-445. https://doi.org/10.1590/2179-8087.062813.

Schaeffer-Novelli, Y., 2018. A diversidade do ecossistema manguezal. In ICMBio. Atlas dos Manguezais do Brasil Biodiversidade (pp. 21-36). Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Brasília.

Schaeffer-Novelli, Y.; Cintrón-Molero, G.; Soares, M.L.G.; De-Rosa, T., 2000. Brazilian mangroves. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, v. 3, (4), 561-570. https://doi.org/10.1080/14634980008650693.

Scharler, U.M.; Baird, D., 2000. The effect of a single freshwater release on the physico-chemical properties of the freshwater-starved Kromme estuary, St Francis Bay, South Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science, v. 25, (1), 227-228. https://doi.org/10.2989/160859100780177758.

Shukla, P.R.; Skea, J.; Calvo Buendia, E.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Pörtner, H.O.; Roberts, D.C.; Zhai, P.; Slade, R.; Connors, S.; van Diemen, R.; Ferrat, M.; Haughey, E.; Luz, S.; Neogi, S.; Pathak, M.; Petzold, J.; Portugal Pereira, J.; Vyas, P.; Huntley, E.; Kissick, K.; Belkacemi, M.; Malley, J., 2019. IPCC, 2019: Climate Change and Land: an IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. IPCC.

Siikamäki, J.; Sanchirico, J.N.; Jardine, S.L., 2012. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 109, (36), 14369-14374. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1200519109

Silva, T.R.D.; Couto, G.A.D.; Campos, V.P.; Medeiros, Y.D.P., 2015. Influência do regime de vazão da usina hidrelétrica de Pedra do Cavalo no comportamento espacial e temporal da salinidade no trecho fluvioestuarino do baixo curso do rio Paraguaçu à baía do Iguape. Revista Brasileira de Recursos Hídricos, v. 20, (2), 310-319.

Song, C.; White, B.L.; Heumann, B.W., 2011. Hyperspectral remote sensing of salinity stress on red (Rhizophora mangle) and white (Laguncularia racemosa) mangroves on Galapagos Islands. Remote Sensing Letters, v. 2, (3), 221-230. https://doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.514305.

Song, X.P.; Hansen, M.C.; Stehman, S.V.; Potapov, P.V.; Tyukavina, A.; Vermote, E.F.; Townshend, J.R., 2018. Global land change from 1982 to 2016. Nature, v. 560, (7720), 639-643. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0411-9.

Teh, S.Y.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Sternberg, L.D.S.L.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.R.; Smith, T.J.; Koh, H.L., 2008. A simulation model for projecting changes in salinity concentrations and species dominance in the coastal margin habitats of the Everglades. Ecological Modelling, v. 213, (2), 245-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.12.007.

Trevisan, D.P.; Melo, B.M.; Melo, R.M.; Moschini, L.E., 2018. Análise das mudanças do uso e cobertura da terra entre 1988 e 2017 no município de Ibaté-SP (Analysis of changes in use and land cover between 1988 and 2017 in Ibaté-SP municipality). Revista Brasileira de Geografia Física, v. 11, (7), 2216-2228. https://doi.org/10.26848/rbgf.v11.7.p2216-2228.

Twilley, R.R., 2019. Mangrove wetlands. In M.G. Messina; W.H. Conner (Eds.), Southern forested wetlands (pp. 445-473). Routledge, London.

Wolanski, E.; Moore, K.; Spagnol, S.; D'adamo, N.; Pattiaratchi, C., 2001. Rapid, human-induced siltation of the macro-tidal Ord River Estuary, Western Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 53, (5), 717-732. https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2001.0799.

Zagatto, B.P., 2013. Sobreposições territoriais no recôncavo baiano: a reserva extrativista baía do Iguape, territórios quilombolas e pesqueiros e o polo industrial naval. RURIS, v. 7, (2), 13-32. https://doi.org/10.53000/rr.v7i2.1881.

Zhila, H.; Mahmood, H.; Rozainah, M.Z., 2014. Biodiversity and biomass of a natural and degraded mangrove forest of Peninsular Malaysia. Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 71, (11), 4629-4635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2853-6.




How to Cite

Lemos Ornellas, J., Nasser Caiafa, A., & Reis do Nascimento Lopes, E. (2022). Temporal dynamics and land use in the marine protected area of Baía do Iguape in Northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira De Ciências Ambientais (RBCIAMB), 57(3), 386–396. https://doi.org/10.5327/Z217694781312